What is Qatar – Il Post
To open the participant
The World Cup that opens on Sunday in Qatar has been mentioned lots not for sporting causes. The host nation, the richest nations dealing with the Persian Gulf, was cited and criticized for the federal government’s administration, for the big sum of money spent on the preparation of the occasion, for the exploitation of the development employees and for the human rights violations that happen there, amongst others.
Qatar is a really small nation: it occupies an island barely bigger than Abruzzo, and has a inhabitants of two.9 million. But above all due to its wealthy wealth from the export of hydrocarbons, it is a rustic that has a powerful affect on the worldwide economic system (and following this 12 months’s power disaster) and in overseas nations.
Historical historical past
The first settlements in Qatar are very previous, and the identical identify as in the present day was used to explain the inhabitants of the realm way back to Roman occasions, when the author and historian Pliny the Great talked about “Catharrei”. The historical past of Qatar is above all associated to the good powers that dominated or tried to rule the small peninsula dealing with the Persian Gulf: from the Islamic caliphates of the Middle Ages to the quick interval that, within the fifteenth century and one, the realm was. dominated by Portugal, which was as soon as a colony.
However, the trendy historical past of Qatar begins within the nineteenth century, when the al Thani household got here to energy, and since then, till in the present day, they’ve dominated the nation as an entire empire. In 1847, Mohammed bin Thani grew to become the primary ruler of the nation, though for a few years he was pressured to share energy with the highly effective nations working within the area.
Al Thani was initially pressured to undergo the Ottoman Empire in 1871 (however continued to rule within the Ottoman identify); later, after the tip of the First World War, Qatar grew to become a British protectorate, as did varied different nations within the area. It signifies that al Thani was impartial in managing inner affairs, however relied on the British Empire for overseas coverage safety.
Qatar grew to become impartial in 1971 when the United Kingdom relinquished its safety. Since then, the nation has remained a monarchy dominated by al Thani. Islam is the official faith and the structure of this nation in its first article states that Islamic legislation (sharia) is the principle supply of legislation. Also, the ruling household has imposed Wahhabism within the nation, i.e., the strict and strict doctrine of Islam, which is additionally utilized in Saudi Arabia, for instance.
In Qatar, the ability of the al Thani household is absolute. The present ruler, Emir Tamim bin Hamad al Thani, is 42 years previous and took energy when his father abdicated in 2013: Tanim bin Hamad is the primary Qatari ruler in 4 generations to keep away from an upheaval in opposition to his member of the family for private achieve. energy.
The Emir of Qatar has the ability to nominate and take away the prime minister and your entire authorities, is the top of the navy and controls the judicial system. In principle it may be supported by a consultative meeting that has different powers, akin to vetoing legal guidelines. In truth, the assembly doesn’t dare to oppose the emir, who in any case chooses one-third of the members of the negotiating physique.
In Qatar, political events are banned, and it is forbidden to type coalitions. Journalists are censored. Homosexuality is against the law punishable by the dying penalty. Unlike Saudi Arabia, alcohol consumption is authorized for foreigners (not Qataris): nonetheless, this is inflicting a number of controversies on the World Cups.
The most necessary date in Qatar’s current historical past is most likely 1997, when the nation started exporting pure fuel to the world. Gas fields had been just lately found, and the nation is now believed to have the third largest oil reserves on the earth, after Russia and Iran (oil reserves, nonetheless, are small and export small). Natural fuel has remodeled the nation of Qatar, making it a really wealthy nation and a regional energy. Currently, Qatar is one of many richest nations on the earth by way of per capita family earnings.
Gas manufacturing has additionally made Qatar probably the most polluting nations on the earth, particularly relative to its dimension: for instance, it is the biggest producer. CO2 per capita (i.e. the quantity of emissions divided by the inhabitants), though apparently essentially the most polluting nations are bigger and extra populated, such because the United States or China.
Over the previous three many years, enormous revenues from pure fuel have allowed Qatar and its authorities to hold out main initiatives and achieve international affect.
In 1996, an English TV channel was launched TOJazeera, which quickly grew to become crucial within the area, and which over time has expanded with places of work and channels each within the West and in different nations. Qatar Airways, which carries the nation’s flag, has grown to turn into probably the most revered and nicely-recognized airways. Doha, the capital, has grown right into a wealthy and affluent metropolis, with skyscrapers and avant-garde structure. In this sense, for Qatar to take the World Cup is a worldwide achievement, though there was a lot criticism of how the nation bought the title.
Qatar’s fast financial progress has additionally led to higher inequality and injustice. Much of the economic system comes from the work of migrant employees, who haven’t any rights and sometimes dwell in horrible situations. A big a part of the event of the World Cup was constructed by them, with nice sacrifices and nice deaths resulting from dangerous protection and boring music.
Of all of the individuals discovered within the territory of Qatar, solely 10-15 p.c have the proper to full citizenship, and the good benefit is the wealth that comes from them: the nation of Qatar has varied packages to redistribute the good wealth produced by the sale of fuel, akin to very average salaries, very beneficiant advantages and nil co-funds. But the non-residents, who’re the vast majority of individuals residing within the nation, dwell in poor situations and have little or no rights.
An unclear overseas coverage
Hydrocarbons wealth has additionally allowed Qatar to remodel itself right into a regional energy. The nation has been allied with the United States for a very long time: in 1991 the Gulf War gave its territory to the West, and later the federal government constructed the Udeid air base, which homes the principle American navy within the Middle East. The base of al Udeid has been utilized in many initiatives by the United States and the West, most just lately to determine a big a part of the air property utilized by the coalition in opposition to the Islamic State, lately.
However, Qatar has maintained an ambiguous overseas coverage, which is allowed by the US authorities. He has been attempting to current himself as a mediator in varied worldwide disputes and conflicts, usually permitting the United States and different buddies to open channels of communication with Islamic teams within the area, even essentially the most highly effective. It undermined the Palestinian group Hamas and was one of many few nations through the years of the struggle in Syria to proceed to cooperate with the assorted opposition teams in Syria and terrorist teams working within the nation, akin to Tahrir al Sham, which they’re affiliated with. Al Qaeda.
Recently, Qatar hosted negotiations between the United States and the Taliban that led to the withdrawal of American troops from Afghanistan in 2021, and stays the principle consultant of the Taliban authorities that took energy in Afghanistan.
Often, nonetheless, this closeness to Muslim teams has been ambiguous and questionable, usually resulting in assist not just for Islamists but additionally for terrorist teams. One of essentially the most talked about points was the TV election Al Jazeera to broadcast the speech of Osama bin Laden, the chief of al Qaeda and the perpetrator of the September 11, 2001 assaults in New York and Washington.
Partly because of the shut proximity of Islamic teams and terrorists, and for causes of regional coverage (i.e. being overexposed to Iran), since 2017 Qatar has been affected by the coverage of isolation that has occurred in nearly all of the nations of the area. additional, which ended the connection and adopted financial boycott measures. Among the collaborating nations are Mauritania, Egypt, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Bahrain and the United Arab Emirates: the disaster was very severe and induced main conflicts all through the area, which solely ended final 12 months.