Relationship between intravenous immunoglobulin dose and outcome in children with acute Kawasaki disease

The handiest dose of intravenous immunoglobulin (Intravenous immunoglobulin – IVIG) to stop coronary artery abnormalities (Coronary artery abnormalities – CAAs) in pediatric sufferers with acute Kawasaki disease (KD) stays unsure. To determine the suitable dose for children with acute KD, researchers carried out a examine in Japan utilizing a financial institution of sufferers in the nation. essay Relationship between intravenous immunoglobulin dose and outcome in sufferers with acute Kawasaki disease Recently printed in the journal European Journal of Pediatrics.


The examine carried out was retrospective. Japanese system A mixture of diagnostic strategies Used to determine pediatric sufferers Patients with acute KD (ICD-10: M30.3) handled with IVIG between 2010 and 2020. The examine inhabitants was stratified based on IVIG dose throughout preliminary remedy (complete dose inside 3 days of IVIG initiation):

  • Low dose group: IVIG <1.9 g/kg;
  • Standard dose group, IVIG and≥1.9 And ≤2.1 g/kg;
  • High dose group: IVIG ≥2.1 g/kg.

Patients older than six years have been excluded because of the restricted variety of diagnoses and these weighing lower than three kilograms or these with lacking knowledge. To exclude recurrence of KD, readmissions six months after the preliminary hospitalization have been additionally excluded from the evaluation.

The major outcome was the proportion of CAA The Discharged from hospital. Secondary outcomes included resistance to IVIG, size of keep, and hospital prices.

end result

Data have been extracted from 88,223 sufferers. Mean age was 1.9 years and imply physique weight was 11.8 kg; 50,438 (57.2%) have been male.

The imply complete dose of IVIG was 2.05 g/kg. Regarding preliminary dose, the imply for the low dose group (n = 12,777) was 1.87 g/kg, the imply for the usual dose group (n = 46,558) was 2.00 g/kg, and the imply for the excessive dose group (n = 46,558) was 2.00 g/kg. Kg. The median dose (n=28,888) was 3.00 g/kg (p<0.001). IVIG10% and preliminary cyclosporine have been used extra regularly in the high-dose and low-dose teams, respectively.

CAA and IVIG resistance occurred in 973 (1.1%) and 20,421 (23.1%) sufferers, respectively. The median size of keep was 10 days and the median hospital price was USD$6,471.

Compared with the low-dose and high-dose teams, The commonplace dose group had the bottom proportion of CAA (0.7%, p < 0.001) and resistance The IVIG (12.7%, p < 0.001), had the bottom size of keep (median 9 days, p < 0.001), and the bottom hospital prices (median US$ 6,145; p < 0.001).

The researchers discovered a U-shaped affiliation between IVIG dose and CAA ratio, with the underside of the curve round 2.0 g/kg; The odds ratio (OR) was 1.34 for 1.8 g/kg and 1.80 for two.4 g/kg with reference to 2.0 g/kg for CAA. Similarly, IVIG dose had a U-shaped affiliation with IVIG resistance ratio, with the decrease a part of the curve round 2.0 g/kg; OR was 1.39 for 1.8 g/kg and 8.95 for two.4 g/kg versus 2.0 g/kg for resistance. The IVIG In addition, IVIG dose had a U-shaped affiliation with size of keep and hospital prices, with the decrease a part of the curve round 2 g/kg.


The examine concluded that IVIG 2 g/kg is essentially the most applicable dose for the remedy of KD sufferers. However, potential research are wanted to verify these outcomes.

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In Brazil, the Brazilian Society of Pediatrics (SBP) recommends that KD be handled with IVIG at a single dose of two.0 g/kg till the tenth day of fever, which reduces the incidence of coronary lesions from 25% to <4. % However, he famous that IVIG also needs to be administered after ten days, when fever is current and CRP or ESR is elevated. Thus, the affected person needs to be hospitalized with cardiac monitoring because of the danger of arrhythmias and myocarditis in the acute part of the disease.

Also, the SBP makes the next suggestions:

  • Addition of moderate-dose (30 to 50mg/kg/day) or high-dose (50 to 80mg/kg/day) acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) in decreasing the chance of aneurysms has not been constant proof of its profit. When the kid has been afebrile for 2 days, ASA needs to be given at a low dose (3.0 to five.0 mg/kg/day), which inhibits platelet aggregation, for six to eight weeks, however needs to be maintained. Indefinitely in case of coronary abnormalities;
  • For the next high-risk coronary aneurysms, contemplate adjuvant remedy with methylprednisolone 2.0 mg/kg/day IV till decision of fever, adopted by weaning of oral prednisolone over 2 to three weeks:
  • Patients underneath six months of age;
  • Patients older than eight years;
  • hypoalbuminemia;
  • thrombocytopenia;
  • leukocytosis;
  • enhance in transaminases;
  • hyponatremia;
  • sKawasaki shock syndrome;
  • male

There are resistant instances characterised by persistent or recurrent fever 36 hours after the tip of IVIG infusion. Given this, SBP recommends repeating IVIG on the identical dose. If fever nonetheless persists, IV pulse remedy with methylprednisolone 30mg/kg/dose (most 1g/dose) could also be used as soon as day by day for 3 consecutive days. Other choices adopted in refractory instances are:

  • Anti-TNF alpha agent – infliximab 5.0 mg/kg/dose; or
  • Immunosuppressants – cyclosporine or cyclophosphamide; or
  • Plasmapheresis.

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