How can school teach children creativity?
If teaching chemistry and math is already difficult, how can we teach children and adolescents? Creative? In a time of rapid change and comprehensive information, schools need to prepare the next generation for new challenges. Many future careers do not yet exist, but academics say you need to nurture useful skills in any setting.
For this reason, for the first time, a test by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), the International Student Assessment (PISA) program, features a cognitive test of creative thinking. It will assess the ability of 15-year-old students to develop architects, assessments and concepts that can be real and effective solutions.
The Pisa test, applied in Brazil until the 31st, lasts 1 hour and the results are measured by the adequacy, flexibility and / or originality of the proposed solutions. Complete questionnaires on student facilitators and creative thinking drivers to understand how social and school environments are associated with skill development.
“By reading a book and completing an exercise, students will not develop this kind of transversal skill in the 21st century. They need to be more involved in activities that they can understand. In “, said Estadao Natalie Foster, OECD analyst. PISA results will be published in 2024.
According to Solenge Wechsler, professor of PUC-Campinas psychology, there are two main stages of creativity involved: different thinking, having different ideas for problem solving; And convergent, which evaluates the adequacy of these concepts.
Everyone has, to a greater or lesser extent, creative potential. The highest levels come from stimulation. It is important to encourage it initially, but it can be done at all levels of education and knowledge. It is not exclusive to the branches of the industry, as it is associated with it.
The OECD estimates that 14% of jobs are at risk of becoming fully automated and 32% will change significantly. Robotics. But replacing creative thinking with machines is not so easy. The report Future of work 2020, according to the World Economic Forum, creativity will be the fifth most sought after skills in the market for 2025. In addition, children and young people will deal with emergencies such as The epidemic And Climate crisis.
According to a survey by the OECD, in 11 countries and with more than 20,000 students, creativity is one of the goals of most school curricula – the National Common Curriculum Base (BNCC), according to a document from the Ministry of Education. In general, the agency says, the problem is that creativity is present in the “desirable” or introductory part of the curriculum.
Lack of practical description
When OECD showed tools that made learning more visible and practical, teachers were receptive – seven out of ten said they used them. For solange, Creative school It will be one that acknowledges that there are different styles. “You can visually work, write, compose music, dance, in short, different ways of expressing content.”
The required technical skills should not be taken up in the creative thinking curriculum. On the contrary, it is an ally of learning. “Many studies have shown that the inclusion of creativity in school enhances the feeling of well-being, enhances attendance and improves performance, as it motivates students to participate, give ideas and explore possibilities,” said Tatiana Nakano Sena, a researcher at the Ayrton Institute.
According to him, one obstacle is that in the education system, memorization is centralized, the student has little role and the error is “punished”. “Creativity is about exposing yourself to the possibility of error and not criticizing.” Giving teachers better training, he argues, is one of the first steps.
In Sao Paulo’s Ecoa Space, which serves children up to the age of 7, creative thinking is not a discipline, but it is embedded in activity, says Marcos Morao, teacher and coordinator of the school’s Corpo M Movimento. The school prioritizes multi-age classes, with emphasis on outdoor roles and activities in different spaces – without a specific room for classes. “The idea is to offer exploratory, research and experimental situations for teachers.”
“We understand that children face problems and have the ability to solve them,” explained Anna Paula Yazbek, director of education. According to him, it is often surprising, because children suggest applications for objects that go beyond the logic of adults.
On the day of the tour EstadaoIn a body and movement class – similar to physical education -, the topic of the day was spinning top. First, in a room, the little ones lean on the checkered board to watch a short-documentary. The video shows how the game is made and the toy is made in different regions, such as Amazon and the outskirts of Sওo Paulo.
“We need to expand their collection,” Morao explained.
At the second moment, already on the court, they split into teams and everyone gets a difference at the top. Those who have already figured out how to spin the object have difficulty sharing tips with colleagues. “Let me teach,” one student says to another. Mourão performs between them and explains only when needed, also helps to make a pan from their pet bottle cap.
Separated by a flow from Chapada dos Vedeiros Park, Alto Paraíso de Goiás (GO), Escola Vila Verde also bets in class with students of different ages – in this case, biseriate. In 2015, the organization was recognized by the MEC as a reference for innovation and creativity. It is maintained by the Instituto Caminho do Meio, a civil society organization, and provides education from kindergarten to elementary school.
For Fernando Leo, the institute’s educational advisor, the difference from the conventional school is the project methodology, the relationship with nature, and the focus on psychosocial and socio-emotional aspects. “Creativity is a ‘side effect’ of all this.” At the beginning of the bimaster, what the topics indicate is the individual project, the class and the students’ own chosen class. Topics for working on planned and curricular skills are diverse, such as composting, immigration to Europe, and adolescent suicide. The results are then presented to others.
No reports or evidence. The student receives a separate qualitative report on the development of the seven required content. Teachers analyze the ability to formulate ideas, memorize, solve problems, as well as self-care and relationships with others, society and the environment.
Students also help with school management. Every Friday there is a meeting with the children and from there a collective decision is made: recently, they considered that the school needed another wooden house. From there the children think about how to raise money.
The Sao Paulo Basic Education Innovation Center (CIEBP), created by the Sao Paulo State Department in 2020, seeks to expand the horizons of primary, secondary and high school students. Youth and adult education (EJA) By technology. They are urged to think about their future problems and to reveal what can help them to create solutions.
Center design according to CIEBP coordinator and finalist Deborah Garofalo Global Teacher Prize (Nobel for Education), further assumes that these young people are born “connected”. “Schools have a big role to play in developing these boys, not just technology consumers, as producers. In addition, they develop skills such as critical thinking and creativity.”
There are 14 centers in the state, with rooms equipped with computers, iPads, programming boards, cameras, laser cutters, microphones and hammers. The goal is not to train technicians or programmers, but to develop skills that will help them in the future.
The centers have been set up in the lazy places of the school. The first, for example, shares space with Escola professor Juleica de Barros Martins Ferreira, west of the capital. Although the walls of the college are beige in color, the center has vibrant blues, greens and oranges. They carry messages such as, “Did you know that the idea you dream of implementing is the right place to start?”
A tail participation in the report Durability In a center made up of high school classes. At the same time they answered students’ doubts, teachers brought questions and encouraged young people to “get their hands dirty”. They were challenged to create a sustainable village model, think of a podcast on the subject, and develop a game. The center also provides ongoing training to teachers and education managers.