33.8% of the approximately 30,000 children in shelters or foster families in the country are between the ages of 0 and 6 years. Publisher data, which covers more than one-third of childhood, sheds light on this sensitive issue, explaining the need for public policy and specific care needs for newborns, infants and young children for training and development.
This is one of the results of the study “Unidade de Acolhimento e Families Acolhedoras”, produced by the National Council of Justice (CNJ) with the support of the United Nations Development Program (UNDP). The study, published in the April 29 National Pact for Early Childhood Seminar, contains – along with four other studies – a broad and unprecedented finding on the issue of childhood in Brazil.
In the specific reception data, the survey examined the situation where this support service was provided for the early childhood department in 2019 and 2020, focusing on research on the state of infrastructure and management of services and its profile. Data were collected from 100 analyzes conducted by a multidisciplinary team based on the data collected.
The methodology obtained data from CNJ’s National Adoption and Reception System (SNA), the Single Social Assistance Service (SWAS) census, a field survey in 18 counties covering 239 conversations, and law mapping. Foster family services in states and municipalities.
This work is the result of an extensive survey of early childhood care units. On the one hand, positive points were identified, such as the expansion of state and municipal laws relating to foster families; The existence of units with more reception capacity than occupancy; And creating SNA as a single system for child care and adoption data. It was also an opportunity to gather information on the events of Kovid-19 in the 2020 Sui census.
On the other hand, the study shows that shelters face a number of challenges, including limited service infrastructure; Insufficient manpower – especially health professionals; And low number of host families.
In detailing the qualitative data, UNDP researcher Monica Ceylan said it was found that negligence was the most frequent cause of reception. “In this section, Neglect, we have already discussed that we need to dissect this notion, which was established by all classes of survey respondents.”
Monica added that the families of the sheltered children are upset to see and treat them as incapable of caring for their children. In other data, field surveys have shown that most families of sheltered children do not live near the shelter.
On social support networks, the number of reception units has increased from 5,768 in 2019 to 6,276 in 2020. Of the 508 new units, 289 target adults or families. In the service network for children and adolescents only, the number of shelters decreased from 2,801 to 2,798 during the analyzed period.
Regarding the profiles of professionals working in the care of five-year-olds, reveals that in 2020, 63.7% of these people finished high school and 85% were women.
In another focus of support services for children and adolescents, the survey shows that the total number of foster families in Brazil recorded a slight increase, from 381 in 2019 to 432 in 2020 – still a low number indicating the need for progress. In this section, it was found that, in 2019, 42% of children aged 0 to 5 years were kept. In 2020, the percentage was 40.3% of the total.
While collecting data, researchers found that only five units of the federation have specific family care laws – Ceará, Tocantins, Minas Gerais, Rio Grande do Sul and Distrito Federal – and only 361 countries out of more than 5.5 thousand municipalities provide such assistance in the Sua census. Claimed. Recent data indicate that six other states have been able to enact legislation to provide such services.
Regarding re-entry into the shelter system, research shows that, in the shelter, the percentage of return increased from 30.9% in 2019 to 31.5% the following year. In family care, at the same time, re-entry has increased from 22.1% to 21.4%.